Conference program

"Comparing Provinces: First Nations, the North and Provinces" 2015-06-02 1:30pm-3pm

Present: Peter Russell, Graham White, Pauline Beange, Andrea Olive

Sheena Kennedy Dalseg and Frances Abele: "Digital Indigenous Democracy: Deliberative Development Decision-Making in Nunavut"

Developed in Nunavut, website like YouTube and Facebook for indigenous language materials

Specifically meant to help low-bandwidth communities connect

Also developed out of Baffin Island iron ore project

Deliberative democracy literature (deliberative turn in democratic theory, democratic control substantive rather than symbolic and undertaken by competent citizens)

Digital democracy literature - realization of democratic ideals

Digital Indigenous Democracy (DID) "not simply an add-on, but an effort to affect fledgling institutional practice in Nunavut"

Nunavut Land Claims Agreement - Nunavut Impact Review Board charged with Inuit participation in decision-making

DID - deliberative process for consensus decision-making

Sufficient resources and competence for meaningful participation

Martin Papillon: "Shifting Grounds: Aboriginal Peoples and Canadian Provinces"

Various approaches to consultation, and how relationships are framed

Limited literature, mostly pessimistic about provinces addressing aboriginal issues

A "reluctant relationship" between aboriginal groups and provinces

Tension endures: federally-provided services on-reserve, but not for those living elsewhere

1969 White Paper was seen as an attempt by the federal government to stop providing services and push the responsibility to the provinces

1980s constitutional negotiations - embryo of provincial aboriginal policy

Big jump in number of agreements after 2005

Tone of relationships has changed


1) Political economy of resources

2) Federal disengagement

3) Policy learning

Jerald Sabin "Comparing within and across northern Canada - Citizenship regimes in the new north"

Multiple citizenships, presents challenges to the liberal-democratic institutions of the settler state

In Yukon and NWT, the effect of multiple citizenships may exacerbate tensions between aboriginals and settlers

Pragmatic and conciliatory policies are needed to bridge institutional divides

Some people offered services by up to 5 governments, live under 3 citizenship regimes

2 new regimes in the last decade in Northern Canada

Now a means to redress colonial past and recognize indigenous nationhood?

Membership or beneficiary status inside a land claim; indigenous citizenship under self-government agreements which include political rights

"Closed" or ethnic citizenship treated in literature with caution

First comparative factor - challenges to political legitimacy

Challenges to economic institutions in the north - Peel watershed region, last fully intact ecosystem in North America

Multiple citizenship has the potential to create crises of institutional legitimacy

Christa Scholtz (McGill University), Maryna Polataiko (McGill University) "Constitutionalizing self-government for whom? Provincial interests and the negotiation of the James Bay Northern Quebec Agreement"

Sought papers related to James Bay Northern Quebec Agreement

Problem: section 91(24)

Bourassa and his team were totally aware of this problem, went ahead anyway

Quiet Revolution underway

Negotiation with Cree began 1971

How Quebec sought to secure legislative jurisdiction over the lands in question, in a way that would pass constitutional muster

Quebec knowingly took the risk that the agreement encroaches on federal jurisdiction

Has the "bet" worked?

Tsilquotin decision of 2014

Discussant 1: Graham White

Is this really deliberative democracy?

Isn't it more than just being non-coercive?

Scale and risks associated with the project

What happens in shorter timespans?

Can this process work with a much shorter timespan?

Re: Martin - what happened to non-status Indians?

Re: Jerald - in Nunavut, you are a beneficiary - Elsewhere, you are a citizen

Re: McGill paper

Discussant 2

Re: Jerald


Martin - Absence of treaties providing political strength for BC First Nations - distinct from Ontario and Quebec

Diffusion not just from BC to elsewhere, but also between other provinces; Ring of Fire, etc * Interview subjects did say that the Olympics played a role in aboriginal policy

Sheena - Values guiding community engagement: deciding together, etc

"Federalism and Public Policy" 2015-06-02 3:15pm-4:45pm

Present: Grace Skogstad, Andrea Olive, Kathryn Harrison, Tanya White


Military procurement process can take decades

Took from the 60s to last year to get a helicopter

Canada lacks immediate threats to territorial integrity, aside from the US

Conservative government pretends to be military-friendly

Present themselves as a good ally to US/NATO, on a low budget

Lack of elite consensus re: what our military should do

Who to fight, what to buy

Provinces as powerful actors: political legitimacy of premiers' offices, premiers have similar mandates to PM, lots of administrative capacity

Governments attempting to use defence procurement as part of a political agenda raise regional tensions

Few bidders, and not likely to be in the same province

If there is an immediate fear of lives being lost, we can buy things quickly

Social/welfare programs implemented under the guise of national defence


National Shipbuilding Procurement Strategy


Hanniman - Fiscal federalism and foreign investment

Fear of default - governments missing a bond payment

Investor beliefs re: creditworthiness very important

Large increase in foreign holdings of government debt since 2008 financial crisis, also 2010-12 Eurozone crisis

Including bonds from Australian, Canadian, and German governments

Foreign investors favour national over subnational borrowers

Has started to reverse since Eurozone crisis

Why have they favoured national over subnational debt traditionally?

High-risk, low interest rate environment

Subnational treasurers and underwriters are actively advertising to foreign investors

Shift to buying subnational debt will lower borrowing costs and diversification of the investor base

Creates risk of foreign currency mismatches, and capital risk

Jane Jenson: "Changing Canada's Citizenship Regime"

Three dimensions of change since 1980s: access to participation, rights and responsibilities, belonging

Writing on the citizenship regime suffers from nostalgia about what used to be, a past perceived to be better

Distress about the direction of change

Now, neo-liberalism everywhere

Now, the direction of change is by no means unidirectional

Citizenship with respect to immigration and integration is being "federalized"

This change could be transformational due to availability of actors and strategies: province-building and decentralization

Dual-track entry, focused on ability to work

How to understand institutional change?

Minor change at Ottawa level led to path opening decentralization for provinces

Wallner - education

Responsibility almost always constitutionally assigned to sub-national level

Does the implementation of reforms in K-12 schooling necessitate an upward transfer of power within federal systems

Canada and Australia both constitutionally federalist

Australia has experienced considerable de facto transfer of authority

Canada has seen no such transfer of authority, provinces remain fully in control

Global School Standards Agenda

Australia enacted new requirements for schools, including mandatory testing regime - national assessment of literacy and numeracy in year 3, 5, 7, 9


Quebec makes it impossible for Canada's federal government to centralize educational policy in a federal Department of Education

"Jumping Over the Line: Case Studies of Academics as Activists" - 2015-06-03 8:45am-10:15am


Discouraged after studying climate change for 15 years

Guilt pushes me to do more - over fate of the Green Shift

Dion's Green Shift, worse in some ways

Visit by McKibben to UBC


She does "work that always has a normative edge to it" - democratic theory

Involved in activism around last year's Fair Elections Act

Third speaker, Paul - childcare focus, feminist gender equality

Set test for self in 2013

Ideas, interests, institutions

What next? Inspired by Canadian Association of Retired Persons

George Hoberg

Stats on how many people actually read and cite articles "have been devastating"

"Just to study is not enough if you want to change something on climate"


Door-to-door canvassing to put climate change on the agenda for the provincial election

Climate movement "so focused on local issues they don't talk about the climate anymore"

Challenges activism has created for your professional academic life

Does vary depending on age / status in academy

Harrison re: risks

Most people she collaborates with are not academics

Gave media interview in tanker costume (will never do that again)

Worried it may affect her ability to do research - ability to interview industry people, governments with different policy views

Also takes up evenings and weekends that would otherwise be used for scholarly productivity

Financial risks, when you go to court


"Truth and politics are not necessarily very companionable"

Challenges in terms of time

Colleagues will testify on the other side, before committees where you are appearing

If you're pre-tenure "probably the default position is that you shouldn't get too busy"


Challenges that arise

Universities and funders rhetorically support "excellence in community engagement"

What are the roles and responsibilities of academics today?

Other parts of the institution "don't keep up with the strategic vision"

He ramped up his activism after tenure


End of scary part

Benefit for selves and community:


Next journal article - challenging received wisdom in IPE, re: politics of fossil fuel exports

Reminder of why she went into academic to begin with, which "the discipline beat out of me pretty quickly"

Often been amazed by how good it feels: big rallies, days of action

Probably publishes one less article per year, but feels much better about her career


Best when collective action includes scholars whose work you respect

Arendt - "freedom is action for the sake of a principle" as opposed to interest or need

People volunteering themselves, based on collective objective -Horizontal organization, cool for a democratic theorist

"Participant-observer dimension"


"Alignment between what's important and what I'm actually doing"

"Feel a kind of guilt when I prioritize the peer-reviewed article I am meant to finish"

"Especially passionate right now about making my country live up to its potential"

Community benefits

Academics often lousy at being academic communicators

Panel discussion

Hoberg previously thought it was inappropriate for academics to become in policy disputes any way other than simply presenting the facts

Main role: to be the person Mancur Olsen doesn't think ever exists - ignore normal cost-benefit incentives and keep the group going

"I don't know what else to do to remain sane, given what I study and what I believe about the future of humanity on the planet"

Questions and discussion

1) Role of students? How is it appropriate or inappropriate to engage students in activism based on your own political priorities? Ethical boundaries? Special considerations re: civil disobedience?

Hoberg - "Deeply personal to me. I have lines."

There is now a Vancouver 350 chapter that wants to do more direct action

Taught a senior undergraduate seminar on policy advocacy

Harrison - On the way to Burnaby Mountain "you can't be in this car if you're planning to be arrested" (re: students, specifically)

Williams - Important not to recruit students to your cause, but does use her work on the Fair Elections Act as an example

2) PhD student, previously working in abstract feminist theory, now studying the area where she was doing activist work for a long time - Now being quoted as an expert on it. Raises some eyebrows in the university setting: interviewing people who she has worked with in a professional setting for many years

Kershaw - The trajectory you describe is "the reverse version of crossing over the line"

"There is a tradition in the academy that does normative scholarship: that starts with the question of what should happen"

Williams - Jane Mansbridge her favourite examplar for what you're describing

Hoberg - "I've learned so much about how the environmental community works and how they divide labour between groups"

3) Leading versus supporting causes. Working on environment and indigenous issues - you must be supportive for them to talk to you, otherwise seen as "part of the colonial apparatus".

Harrison - Once you're a full professor, if you're in a supporting role there is a good chance a reporter will find you -You can decline to speak, but isn't that why you're there?

Hoberg - With indigenous issues, you need to be comfortable with a completely different level of engagement

4) Trends in funding for research? SSHRC, etc.

Harrison - "SSHRC partnerships more difficult, because the money's all on the industry side"

Hoberg - "I keep wondering when someone's going to yell at me"

5) PostDoc at Dal, studying human rights activism - activist work has really shaped research

6) Tension between political rhetoric and truth and accuracy, choice not to use some activist rhetoric. Have you actually challenged problematic rhetoric?

7) Me - re: divestment, we haven't really seen much overt opposition, aside from the occasional curmudgeonly economist. Others not out there raising the contrary arguments; we raise them so we can rebut them. Is this something you have experienced? What's the relevance for those trying to produce change?

Williams - silence a rhetorical tactic - who is going to speak up against the rights of indigenous peoples?

Kershaw - Relation of questions to ask and values - Feminism strong on showing there is no distinction between our values and the question we ask

Harrison - "On the coal stuff, there is another side"

Hoberg - Re: divestment - first they ignore, then laugh, then fight, then win

"Aboriginal Politics" 2015-06-03 10:30am-12pm

Notes handwritten

"Plenary: The Lost Potential and Legacy of the Failed 1992 Charlottetown Accord" 2015-06-03 12pm-1:30pm

Chair: Diedre Desmarais

Panel: Peter Russell, Ovide Mercredi

Land acknowledgement: Algonquin territory


Listening to the Truth and Reconciliation report, thought the Charlottetown Accord could have made a difference if ratified and implemented

"Double understanding" -the truth is to be found through the knowledge and perceptions of more than one person

Politics a half-truth, partisan effort based on power, not respect or understanding

Notes respect that people in indigenous communities have for Peter Russell

Grew up in Cree majority area in Grand Rapids

Parliament sees itself as sovereign

Residential school system motivated in part by the aspirations of churches to convert people, and their search for state support to assist them

In 1950s, economy self-sufficient, based on fish and moose, home-made canoes

"The white men taught us to pray differently, and when we looked up our land was gone"

Idea of coexistence has not been abandoned

MacDonald saw Indians as inferior beings to be assimilated

Pre-Confederation treaties: trade, military alliances

Canadian state says treaties 1-11 represented secession of land, rejected by aboriginals

Attempts at constitutional reform have been the consequence of political resistance

Trudeau's vision of patriation linked to "his baby", the Charter of Rights and Freedoms

There were also debates among aboriginals on the meaning of S. 35

Debates at Assembly of First Nations far more interesting than those in Parliament

Constitutional process established in S. 37

Conservatives in power after Trudeau's walk in the snow

Idea of recognizing Quebec as a distinct society

Unforeseeable event, Elijah Harper

Mercredi organized protests against Meech Lake

Charlottetown, after Meech Lake defeated

Two distinct people trying to find out how to live together - A conversation that was suspended for a century after Canada became a nation state

FN had a clear sense of what to accomplish

How can you have 635 governments?

Basic notion: the inherent right of the people to govern their own affairs

UK's lack of a written constitution preferable to Canada's approach

Political v. judicial processes for determining what the treaties mean

One rather difficult issue: idea of lawmaking

"In the absence of consensus between the conflicting parties, we could go to the Supreme Court" to sort out the question of paramountcy

Conclusion: Charlottetown was a missed opportunity


This is an opportunity that can be recovered

Is this a turning point? We've been here before

"I hope and pray that this is not a lost opportunity"

After the Charlottetown Accord failed, the RCAP sent Roger Jones and Peter Russell to the AFN in Calgary, in a hockey rink, to raise the idea of another attempt at negotiations

We have moved on since the Charlottetown Accord

We should have a political accord on financing aboriginal governments along the basic design of the equalization sections of our constitution (4 paragraph long political accord)

It would be a tragedy if self-government failed due to lack of funds

Beyond the fiscal part, we need a political accord getting the provinces and Ottawa (and the territories) to commit to begin to negotiate with First Nations that are ready to go

"Municipalities are not where you're going; I don't think you want to go there"

Political accord would call on both sides to get ready to deal with this, starting with groups that say they're ready to go

These are important parts of the Charlottetown Accord legacy

Martin Papillon - people are working on making their own arrangements

Charlottetown wasn't a lost opportunity, but a legacy which we can build on and have been building on

The whole country should hold its governments to uphold the rights of indigenous peoples


Loss at Charlottetown about the dream of having shelter from the rule of other governments

"I still see the constitution as the answer, because a political accord doesn't guarantee anything"

The promise in S. 37 of the Canada Act is broken, and has to be fulfilled

"The generation coming is going to be powerful"

Constitutional blanket "wrap it around ourselves while we heal"

We would have been much farther ahead if Charlottetown had passed

"We're at the point where we have to rely on the media to get our points across, because obviously the governments are not with us"

"Connecting political science and politics: The challenge of diversity - CPSA Keynote Address" 2015-06-03 1:30pm-3pm

Intro: Melissa Haussman

Speaker: Marian Sawer (Australian National University)


Political science often finds itself in a precarious situation

Cognate disciplines like history and sociology are ahead, in terms of participation of women and the incorporation of feminist critiques

Trajectory of feminism in political science from 1970s to now

Second wave feminism, 1970s

Traditional view: reproduction and childcare not part of the subject of politics

"Feminist frames being imported into political science"

Moving from "dual roles" for women, to such roles for both men and women

Underrepresentation of women in politics long unaddressed in the Journal of the Canadian Political Science Association

"Leadership" as a gendered concept - associated with characteristics associated with men

Photos of Australian cabinet and International Political Science Association executives in 1978

Little change in the Canadian journal in the 1980s

Political science long a two-person career: wife to take care of family and support husband's output in other ways

Akin to politician's wife - "the smiling figure behind or next to the politician"

"Would you vote for a woman for president if she was qualified in every other respect?"

Feminist political science has shifted away from its origins in the women's movement

"Strategic use of surveys" - surveys, of course, always have more than one purpose

Book with names of contributors not listed, "as it is the ideas themselves, rather than who presented them, which is crucial"

Aim to combat the masculine assumptions of the discipline

Changes in Canadian journal in 1990s, when "rich array of feminist scholarship" began to be published

Feminist political science has moved beyond directly speaking with words drawn from an external political movement

Reflected changing nature of research governance and evaluation

Highest impact journals have little interest in the politics of smaller countries, unless as part of a large-n study

In UK, Emma Foster and colleagues say that new evaluation criteria impede placing analysis "close to home"

"Core" work privileged over "work at the boundaries which draws on other disciplines"

Institution-building outside the United States has often been ignored

Effort "to make social science work more scientific"

Low female participation in legislatures as a sign of democratic deficit

"Feminist work has play a crucial role of reframing this issue as not one of female deficits but of exclusionary institutions"

Women are likely to be a majority of those engaged in the most common forms of political behaviour: signing petitions, engaging in political consumerism, voting

Changing public opinions is directly relevant to the achievement of movement goals

Reframing of gender analysis as a scientific process which can be undertaken without contact with advocacy groups

Research on the interaction of quotas, electoral systems, and party structures has been of especial practical importance

Epistemic community established via Facebook group, with up-to-the-minute updates on quotas around the world

Interparliamentary Union ranking of global parliaments by presence of women

In Australia, a purple corsage signifies feminism

At the same time as politics is changing, the face of political science is changing

There can be an uneasy relationship between feminist scholarship and activist movements

1990s not an especially favourable decade for feminist activism, re: politics

Concept of "critical mass" took on a life of its own, having arisen in feminist scholarship

Equal Voice - NGO seeking to increase representation of women in Parliament

"Collision between feminist political science and feminist political activism"

Changes in feminist PS over the last 40 years

"No irreparable rift between the two"


1) What about diversity scholarship within feminist political science?

Not part of this address

2) Impact of legal turn in the English Canadian women's movement? (Situation different in Quebec). Different from pattern in Australia and other Anglo democracies? Conscious decision to "turn most of what the women's movement does over to the lawyers"

"Of course, you have the Charter and we don't"

In Australia, much more focus on Parliament than on the legal system

3) Things seem to be improving by and large. Are younger elements of the discipline stagnating or regressing? "We're all equal now under the Charter so there's no need for feminist activism." Hashtag about not needing feminism

Looking at Canada and Australia, the actualities of women's earnings, childcare, etc - equality has not been gained, though there may be a perception that it has been

Young women in Australia really notice campaigns of sexist vilification against women in leadership positions

Facebook campaign "destroy the joint"

Freelance cartoonist sending sexist cartoons based on the PM to all parliamentarians

"Natural Resource Governance: Canada & Comparative" 2015-06-04 8:45am-10:15am